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Parasagittal dural space and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow across the lifespan in healthy adults
Fluids Barriers CNS. 2022 Mar 21;19(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12987-022-00320-4.
Kilian Hett 1, Colin D McKnight 2, Jarrod J Eisma 1, Jason Elenberger 1, Jennifer S Lindsey 2, Ciaran M Considine 1, Daniel O Claassen 1, Manus J Donahue 3 4 5
Background: Recent studies have suggested alternative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance pathways for brain parenchymal metabolic waste products. One fundamental but relatively under-explored component of these pathways is the anatomic region surrounding the superior sagittal sinus, which has been shown to have relevance to trans-arachnoid molecular passage. This so-called parasagittal dural (PSD) space may play a physiologically significant role as a distal intracranial component of the human glymphatic circuit, yet fundamental gaps persist in our knowledge of how this space changes with normal aging and intracranial bulk fluid transport.
Methods: We re-parameterized MRI methods to assess CSF circulation in humans using high resolution imaging of the PSD space and phase contrast measures of flow through the cerebral aqueduct to test the hypotheses that volumetric measures of PSD space (1) are directly related to CSF flow (mL/s) through the cerebral aqueduct, and (2) increase with age. Multi-modal 3-Tesla MRI was applied in healthy participants (n = 62; age range = 20-83 years) across the adult lifespan whereby phase contrast assessments of CSF flow through the aqueduct were paired with non-contrasted T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI for PSD volumetry. PSD volume was extracted using a recently validated neural networks algorithm. Non-parametric regression models were applied to evaluate how PSD volume related to tissue volume and age cross-sectionally, and separately how PSD volume related to CSF flow (significance criteria: two-sided p < 0.05).
Results: A significant PSD volume enlargement in relation to normal aging (p < 0.001, Spearman’s-[Formula: see text] = 0.6), CSF volume (p < 0.001, Spearman’s-[Formula: see text] = 0.6) and maximum CSF flow through the aqueduct of Sylvius (anterograde and retrograde, p < 0.001) were observed. The elevation in PSD volume was not significantly related to gray or white matter tissue volumes. Findings are consistent with PSD volume increasing with age and bulk CSF flow.
Conclusions: Findings highlight the feasibility of quantifying PSD volume non-invasively in vivo in humans using machine learning and non-contrast MRI. Additionally, findings demonstrate that PSD volume increases with age and relates to CSF volume and bi-directional flow. Values reported should provide useful normative ranges for how PSD volume adjusts with age, which will serve as a necessary pre-requisite for comparisons to persons with neurodegenerative disorders.
Glymphatic system, Humans, CSF, Parasagittal dural space, MRI, Methods