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Use of acidic nanoparticles to rescue macrophage lysosomal dysfunction in atherosclerosis
Xiangyu Zhang 1, Santosh Kumar Misra 2, Parikshit Moitra 3 4, Xiuli Zhang 5, Se-Jin Jeong 1, Jeremiah Stitham 1 6, Astrid Rodriguez-Velez 1, Arick Park 1, Yu-Sheng Yeh 1, William E Gillanders 5, Daping Fan 7, Abhinav Diwan 1 8, Jaehyung Cho 9, Slava Epelman 10, Irfan J Lodhi 6, Dipanjan Pan 2 3 4, Babak Razani 1 8 11
...We took advantage of this default route to target macrophage lysosomes to rectify their acidity in disease states such as atherosclerosis. Herein, we develop and test two commonly used acidic nanoparticles, poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA), both in vitro and in vivo. Our results in cultured macrophages indicate that the PLGA-based nanoparticles are the most effective at trafficking to and enhancing acidification of lysosomes. PLGA nanoparticles also provide functional benefits including enhanced lysosomal degradation, promotion of macroautophagy/autophagy and protein aggregate removal, and reduced apoptosis and inflammasome activation. We demonstrate the utility of this system in vivo, showing nanoparticle accumulation in, and lysosomal acidification of, macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Long-term administration of PLGA nanoparticles results in significant reductions in surrogates of plaque complexity with reduced apoptosis, necrotic core formation, and cytotoxic protein aggregates and increased fibrous cap formation. Taken together, our data support the use of acidic nanoparticles to rescue macrophage lysosomal dysfunction in the treatment of atherosclerosis.