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Restoration of lysosomal and mitochondrial function through p38 MAPK inhibition ameliorates senescence
Ji Yun Park 1, Haneur Lee 2, Eun Seon Song 3, Yun Haeng Lee 4, Myeong Uk Kuk 5, Gahyun Ko 6, Hyung Wook Kwon 7, Youngjoo Byun 8, Joon Tae Park 9
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), characterized by irreversible cell cycle arrest by oncogene activation, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-related diseases. Recent research indicates that OIS is driven by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, it is not apparent whether MAPK inhibition helps to recover senescence. In our previous study, we uncovered p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, as an effective agent to reduce ROS and increase proliferation in premature senescent cells. In this study, we evaluated whether SB203580 could ameliorate senescence in normal senescent cells. The senescence-improving effect was observed in the results that SB203580 treatment restored lysosomal function, as evidenced by a decrease in lysosomal mass and an increase in autophagic vacuoles. Then, SB203580-mediated lysosomal function restoration triggered the clearance of damaged mitochondria, leading to metabolic reprogramming necessary for amelioration of senescence. Indeed, p38 MAPK inhibition by SB203580 improved key senescent phenotypes. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which modulation of p38 MAPK activity leads to senescence improvement through functional restoration of lysosome and mitochondria.