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Autophagic LC3 + calcified extracellular vesicles initiate cartilage calcification in osteoarthritis
Jianfei Yan 1, Minjuan Shen 1, Bingdong Sui 2, Weicheng Lu 1, Xiaoxiao Han 1, Qianqian Wan 1, Yingying Liu 3, Junjun Kang 3, Wenpin Qin 1, Zibing Zhang 1, Da Chen 2, Yuan Cao 2, Siqi Ying 2, Franklin R Tay 4, Li-Na Niu 1, Kai Jiao 1
Pathological cartilage calcification plays an important role in osteoarthritis progression but in which the origin of calcified extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their effects remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that pathological cartilage calcification occurs in the early stage of the osteoarthritis in which the calcified EVs are closely involved. Autophagosomes carrying the minerals are released in EVs, and calcification is induced by those autophagy-regulated calcified EVs. Autophagy-derived microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3)-positive EVs are the major population of calcified EVs that initiate pathological calcification. Release of LC3-positive calcified EVs is caused by blockage of the autophagy flux resulted from histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated microtubule destabilization. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity blocks the release of the LC3-positive calcified EVs by chondrocytes and effectively reverses the pathological calcification and degradation of cartilage. The present work discovers that calcified EVs derived from autophagosomes initiate pathological cartilage calcification in osteoarthritis, with potential therapeutic targeting implication.