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Aging, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, Brain Cell Senescence, and Alzheimer's Disease
Chun-Sun Jiang 1, Tapasi Rana 1, Lee-Way Jin 2, Susan A Farr 3 4, John E Morley 3, Hongwei Qin 5, Gang Liu 1, Rui-Ming Liu 1
The etiology for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), which accounts for >95% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, is unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that cellular senescence contributes importantly to AD pathophysiology, although the mechanisms underlying brain cell senescence and by which senescent cells promote neuro-pathophysiology remain unclear. In this study we show for the first time that the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor, is increased, in correlation with the increased expression of cell cycle repressors p53 and p21, in the hippocampus/cortex of senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and LOAD patients. Double immunostaining results show that astrocytes in the brain of LOAD patients and SAMP8 mice express higher levels of senescent markers and PAI-1, compared to astrocytes in the corresponding controls. In vitro studies further show that overexpression of PAI-1 alone, intracellularly or extracellularly, induced senescence, whereas inhibition or silencing PAI-1 attenuated H2O2-induced senescence, in primary mouse and human astrocytes. Treatment with the conditional medium (CM) from senescent astrocytes induced neuron apoptosis. Importantly, the PAI-1 deficient CM from senescent astrocytes that overexpress a secretion deficient PAI-1 (sdPAI-1) has significantly reduced effect on neurons, compared to the PAI-1 containing CM from senescent astrocytes overexpressing wild type PAI-1 (wtPAI-1), although sdPAI-1 and wtPAI-1 induce similar degree of astrocyte senescence. Together, our results suggest that increased PAI-1, intracellularly or extracellularly, may contribute to brain cell senescence in LOAD and that senescent astrocytes can induce neuron apoptosis through secreting pathologically active molecules, including PAI-1.