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Activation of DNA demethylases attenuates aging-associated arterial stiffening and hypertension.
Aging Cell. 2018 Aug;17(4):e12762. doi: 10.1111/acel.12762
Chen K, Sun Z
DNA methylation increases with age. The objective of this study was to investigate whether compound H, a potential activator of DNA demethylases, attenuates aging-related arterial stiffness and hypertension. Aged mice (24-27 months) and adult mice (12 months) were used. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of arterial stiffness, and blood pressure (BP) were increased significantly in aged mice. Notably, daily treatments with compound H (15 mg/kg, IP) for 2 weeks significantly attenuated the aging-related increases in PWV and BP. Compound H abolished aging-associated downregulation of secreted Klotho (SKL) levels in both kidneys and serum likely by enhancing DNA demethylase activity and decreasing DNA methylation. Aging-related arterial stiffness was associated with accumulation of stiffer collagen and degradation of compliant elastin which are accompanied by increased expression of MMP2, MMP9, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3. These changes were effectively attenuated by compound H, suggesting rejuvenation of aged arteries. Compound H also rescued downregulation of Sirt1 deacetylase, AMPKα, and eNOS activities in aortas of aged mice. In cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCc) Klotho-deficient serum upregulated expression of MMPs and TGFβ which, however, was not affected by compound H. In conclusion, compound H attenuates aging-associated arterial stiffness and hypertension by activation of DNA demethylase which increases renal SKL expression and consequently circulating SKL levels leading to activation of the Sirt1-AMPK-eNOS pathway in aortas of aged mice.