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Activatable senoprobes and senolytics: Novel strategies to detect and target senescent cells
Samir Morsli 1, Gary J Doherty 2, Daniel Muñoz-Espín 3
...Preferential release of drugs and macromolecular formulations within senescent cells has been predominantly achieved by exploiting one of the most widely used biomarkers of senescence, the increase in lysosomal senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, a common feature of most reported senescent cell types. Galacto-conjugation is a versatile therapeutic and detection strategy to facilitate preferential targeting of senescent cells by using a variety of existing formulations, including modular systems, nanocarriers, activatable prodrugs, probes, and small molecules. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of these specific senescence targeting tools and how the strategy of galacto-conjugation might be utilised to design more specific and sophisticated next-generation senotherapeutics, as well as theranostics agents. Finally, we discuss some innovative strategies and possible future directions for the field.