Blood glucose: a strong risk factor for mortality in nondiabetic patients with cardiovascular disease.

Am Heart J 2005;150(2):209-214.

Blood glucose: a strong risk factor for mortality in nondiabetic patients with cardiovascular disease.

Port SC, Goodarzi MO, Boyle NG, Jennrich RI.

Abstract

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of blood glucose (BG) for nondiabetic patients in a stable chronic phase of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been sparsely investigated, especially for glucose within the normal range. In particular, it is unknown if for these patients there is a graded relation of mortality to glucose or if there is a lower threshold. METHODS: We used the Framingham Heart Study 30-year data to determine 2-year all-cause, cardiovascular mortality (CVM), and non-CVM risk adjusted for age, sex, and typical cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, cigarette smoking, and use of antihypertensive drugs) by levels of random whole BG for non-glucose-intolerant subjects (glucose intolerance includes diabetes mellitus) with existing CVD. RESULTS: There were steep graded relations of 2-year all-cause, CVM, and non-CVM to BG throughout the normal and subdiabetic range with no evidence of a lower threshold. Two-year mortality continuously increased from 2.99% at the bottom of the normal range (BG = 60 [plasma equivalent = 67] mg/dL) to 7.23% at the top of the normal range (89 [plasma equivalent = 100] mg/dL) (a 2.42-fold increase) and then continued to further continuously increase, reaching 11.38% at 119 [plasma equivalent = 133] mg/dL, the top of the glucose range considered (P for trend < .0001). There were analogous steep increases for CVM and non-CVM. CONCLUSIONS: Blood glucose, even within the normal range, is a strong independent predictor of 2-year all-cause, CVM, and non-CVM in nondiabetic subjects with CVD and therefore of prognostic significance for these high-risk patients.