Several types of interventions provide evidence that aging can be successfully controlled. Now, when numerous life-extending mutations dispelled the long-term myth on immutability of species-specific life span it is a good time to rethink rational for anti-aging strategy. The evidence is currently accumulating that age-related changes in a cell are not the cause, but the consequence of organism’s senescence. The normal cells are not isolated in the body, and their functions are regulated by the factors originated outside these cells. The levels of these factors are highly dependent on the current response of living being to external challenges. Therefore the features of organisms are such that their optimal activity is shown in the most probable range of environmental factors characterizing the habitat. These external influences induce organisms to raise its resistance, or to reduce its rate of aging. But most studies of aging are conducted in humans and domestic or laboratory animals, i.e. in conditions where artificial environmental protection is applied. This yields changes in functioning including physiology and behavior, compared to those expected in the wild (i.e. in conditions for which organism was adjusted during evolutionary time). It is possible that new conditions are less adequate to the evolutionary adjusted genetic set up of an organism, which increases the aging rate and reduces longevity. The evolutionary point of view and available experimental, ecological and demographic data indicate that at the appropriate conditions full renewal of an organism is possible in human beings and in other species with the repeated cycles of reproduction.