Carnosine is a neuroprotective dipeptide consisting of β-alanine and L-histidine accumulating in excitable tissues of vertebrates in concentrations varied between 2-40 mM. It demonstrates a number of useful activities including stimulation of brain and muscle microcirculation, activation of muscle working capacity, wound healing action on tissues and rejuvenating effect on cells cultured. This diversity of its bioactivities is based on antioxidant and anti-glycating action of carnosine which, in addition to heavy metal chelation and pH-buffering ability gives carnosine essential factor preventing neurodegenerations and accumulation of senile features. Carnosine has been found to protect brain of animals under several experimental models of oxidative stress, and to suppress neurological symptomatic and to increase vitality. Recently, carnosine was used (in addition to basic therapy) to treat patients after brain stroke or patients with Parkinson disease. After 30 days trial, statistically significant increase in efficiency of the treatment was shown compared to the groups treated with basic therapy. No one case of negative effect of carnosine was noted. We conclude that carnosine can be recommended for patients under oxidative stress as a natural remedy having high efficiency and no side-effects.