F. Marotta, H. Yadav, Y. Naito, A. Kumari, C. Tomella, R. Catanzaro, S. Jain, A. Lorenzetti, V. Soresi

Endothelial dysfunction is independently related to future cardiovascular events and the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. Although the inner mechanisms remain uncertain, an imbalance between increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant mechanism, especially inactivation of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide anion and other reactive oxygen species, may contribute to the promotion of atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Thus the aim in this study was to test a biofermented nutraceutical (FPP) which has been previously shown to positively modulate NO. All 42 participants were healthy middle-age subjects and not taking any drugs or supplements and who maintained their usual diet and lifestyle, excluding all beverages and supplements that could influence vasomotor function. Subjects were given FPP 3g three times a day for 6 weeks and tests were repeated at 3 and 6 weeks while the control group was given a placebo. Endothelial function was measured on each individual three times, at start of treatment and twice during the four weeks of treatment with an interval of two weeks. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) will thus be measured as the percent change in brachial artery diameter from pre-cuff inflation to 60-seconds post-cuff release as uniform as possible for each visit. Blood samples for erythrocyte content and inflammation, samples for lipids, blood glucose and inflammation were taken at each visit. Blood samples will be collected from the subjects at baseline and before FBF measurement and assessed for NO compounds (Nox: NO2− + NO3−) plasma levels and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA). In the interventional group overall FMD significantly increased from 4.2% to 7.3% (p

Keywords (Optional): 
fermented papaya preparation
endothelial dysfunction
nitric oxide
flow mediated dilation
pxidative stress