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Abstract Archive

This searchable list includes the abstracts of all presentations given at a conference organised as part of the SENS series. We regret that the videos recorded at SENS3 and SENS4 are currently unavailable.

Improved Sequencing as a SENS Accelerant

Authors: K. Kemmish, M. Hamalainen
Video: (Video)

We are improving DNA sequencing to achieve our goal of turning biology into an information science. Along the way, various SENS approaches will be accelerated by improved DNA sequencing, and we present here specific experimental paths for using the tool in service of SENS. As one example, sequencing offers extreme technical shortcuts in molecular directed evolution techniques, allowing larger populations to be interrogated with fewer rounds of evolution and increased stringency of selection.

Keywords: sequencing, tools, directed evolution, stem cells,

Ultra Fast DNA Sequencing by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: W. Andregg, M. Andregg, K. Kemmish, J. Hall, M. Hamalainen

Halcyon Molecular has developed an advanced DNA manipulation technology that enables ultra-low-cost and ultra-fast sequencing by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We've termed this method IMPRNT for Individual Molecule Placement Rapid Nano Transfer. Fundamental physical differences between TEM and fluorescence based methods allow us to leapfrog other approaches by orders of magnitude on speed, cost and quality. We have recently demonstrated the proof-of-principle for using IMPRNT to sequence DNA.

Keywords: DNA Sequencing, Electron Microscopy, Nanotechnology, ,

Isolation and characterization of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells: potential application in cell-based gene therapy

Authors: A. Jafari Kermani, F. Fathi, S.J. Mowla, M.R. Golbar, H. Salimizand

Introduction: Stem cells are the next frontier in medicine and they are thought to have a great therapeutic potential. Stem cells are defined with two main characteristics, which are self-renewal and multipotency. Currently, ethical and technical issues have surrounded both embryonic and adult stem cells and hinder their widespread implementation. In contrast, stem cells recovered postnatally from the umbilical cord, including the umbilical cord vein, blood and matrix are a readily available and inexpensive source of cells that are capable of forming many different cell types.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord, electroporation, self renewal, neural differentiation

Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging (ageLOK Technology)

Authors: D.G. Kern, Z.D. Draelos, D.J. Morré, D.M. Morré

Previous work comparing dermis and epidermis from either sun-protected or sun-exposed skin areas plus sera from female subjects ages 28 to 72 years were analyzed for arNOX activity which correlated with oxidative skin damage. ArNOX is a cell surface-located hydroquinone oxidase capable of superoxide generation. The arNOX activity is shed into body fluids and may be monitored in sera, or saliva with equivalent results. In these experiments superoxide production was measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c as the quantitation method.

Keywords: Age-related ENOX, Cell-surface oxidase, Reactive oxygen, Skin aging, Advanced Glycation Endproducts

Multiple longevity strategies in vertebrates

Authors: M. Khaidakov

We have recently shown that direct repeats in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding sequences may impose significant limitations on mammalian lifespan. They are responsible for the formation of the majority of deletions, and provide a mechanism for mtDNA decay that is relatively independent of metabolic rate. Deletions appear to be a major contributor to mtDNA mutational load, as direct repeats predispose large regions of mtDNA sequence to multiple independent mutational events.

Keywords: mtDNA, direct repeats, deletions, clonal expansion, lifespan

Intra-chromosomal DNA sequences and problem of aging

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

A popular theory of aging associates it with the age-related changes of cells due to the shortening of chromosomes because of under-replication DNA in telomeric regions of linear chromosomes. However, linearity of chromosomes not necessarily means the linear organization of their DNA. Moreover, there is reason to believe that the DNA strands with free ends the double helix is an artifact of the methods of its isolation and the norm is always a ring.

Keywords: , , , ,

Cellular background of non-senescence

Authors: Khalyavkin A.

The gradually loss of the proliferative capacity in fibroblasts and other cells in vitro may be a manifestation of cellular maturation and terminal differentiation but not of the true senescence of cells. The limitless proliferative potential which somatic stem-like cells are thought to possess is clearly revealed by means of in vitro restoration of the stem cell supporting microenvironment, or by removing differentiating stimuli from the cell culture, or by adding differentiating inhibitors to cultural medium, etc.

Keywords: Cellular non-senescence, Rate of aging, Environmental influence

Influence of food signals on ageing and survival

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, V.N. Krutko

Life expectancy and health depend not only on hereditary potential, in utero conditions, accidents, environmental features and style of life, but also from quality and quantity of a food. Caloric restriction is one of the most infallible methods for life extension. Hypo caloric animals reveal biological age much younger than the biological age of ad libitum control.

Keywords: food signalling, plasticity of ageing, control systems, external influences on ageing,

The updated view concerning possibility to grow old without senescence

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

Many times ago Bernard Strehler prophetically said: "There is no inherent property of cells or of metazoan organization which by itself precludes their organization into perpetually functioning and self-replenishing individuals". It is clear today that the normal somatic cell lines are potentially immortal like cancer cells and germ-line cells.

Keywords: external influences on ageing, non-senescence, rejuvenation, ,

The pattern of environmental influence on rate of aging predicts the possibility of an ageless state

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, A.I. Yashin

One of the most exciting events in current biogerontology is the elucidation of the environmental control of aging rate. In vivo and in vitro observations suggest that adequate mechanical, humoral and other stimuli can ameliorate state of different biological units and even rejuvenate them. Recent findings are compatible with possibility of completely extrinsic reason of cellular aging in norm. We have extended this principle to the whole organism level.

Keywords: aging plasticity, environmental control, aging reversibility, ageless state ,

Aging and external signaling

Authors: Khalyavkin AV, Krutko VN.

Researchers working in the area of aging found numerous manifestations of this process at the molecular biological level including DNA and protein damage, accumulation of metabolic by-products, lipids peroxidation, cross-linking between macromolecules, non-enzymatic glycosylation, anti-oxidant/pro-oxidant misbalance, rising of pro-inflammatory cytokines etc., resulting in an increase in proportion of cells in growth arrest, reduction of the rate of information processing,  decreasing metabolic rate, and rates of other processes characterizing dynamic aspects of organism’s interaction with e

Keywords: environmental influences, origin of aging, retardation of senescence

Why aging is simpler than we think: a systemic view of natural aging

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, V.N. Kroutko

It is well known that the cellular-molecular approach to the problem of the causes of aging prevails in modern biogerontology. However, there are some doubts about the efficiency of such an approach. Recently some of their supporters have abandoned most of the accepted hypotheses of senescence - telomere shortening, jumping genes redistribution, free radical damage, accumulation of mutations etc. On the other hand, recent findings correspond with te possibility of solely external causes of the non-pathological aging of cells and even its reversibility.

Keywords: aging reversibility, systemic approach, environmental influences , ,

Senescence as morbus reponibilis

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, A.I. Yashin

At the moment there is no conclusion on the origin of senescence. Recently the author of a telomere shrinkage hypothesis of aging has rejected it as explanation of an origin of aging and has put forward a new one (Olovnikov, Biochemistry 2003; Adv.Gerontol. 2003). On the other hand, one of the most commonly noted versions of the free radical theory of aging has also failed to explain non-pathological senescence (Orr, Sohal, Exp.Gerontol. 2003).

Keywords: aging plasticity, external influences, aging reversibility , ,

Non-senescence seems feasible. But are we ready now for such possibility?

Authors: Khalyavkin AV.

Are we ready to be non-senescent now? We may say ‘Yes’ if it is a part of the scientific task. But we must say ‘No’ in a case if it will be a global social project. It is so since at present our society is too heterogeneous, too imperfect and too inconsistent for the realization of this possibility. Therefore the overcoming of social imperfectness is a top-priority challenge of our days. While anti-aging researchers have made considerable advances in recent years, anti-aging thinking, as a formal discipline, has yet to enter the mainstream.

Keywords: Non-senescence, Social issues, Global road map

Whether is phenoptosis an inevitable programmed aging or it can be avoided?

Authors: Khalyavkin AV.

The senescence is a complicated and yet not fully comprehended process. Currently there is a lot of data contradicting to the theories of occurrence of aging due to accumulation of various damages. For instance, there has been partial or complete reversibility of symptoms indicating the senescence of organism components as a result of creating essential conditions for their functioning (relevant microenvironment, humoral background, etc). Following for V.

Keywords: phenoptosis, quasi-programmed aging, avoidable senescence, dynamic stability

Genetic and environmental determinants of aging and longevity: the lesson of the life-extending mutations

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, A.I. Yashin

Most studies of aging are conducted in humans and domestic or laboratory animals, i.e. in conditions where artificial environment protection is applied. This yields changes in physiology and behavior, which set up organism's state unobserved in wild life.

Keywords: Life-extending mutations, Aging plasticity, Environmental influences , ,

Telomere shortening: is it really basic cause of senescence?

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

Recent hypothesis connects the origin of aging with telomere loss due to "end-replication problem" of linear chromosomes. It is interesting that in some cases the mutant cells which lost all telomeric DNA sequences became immortal, because all chromosomes in these cells became circular. The mechanism of chromosome circularization is not yet known since despite progress in understanding the structure and function of individual genes, little is known about the chromatin structure beyond the level of the nucleosome.

Keywords: Telomere-related aging hypothesis, Intrachromosomal telomeric sequences , , ,

Super-Longevity: Reality or Myth?

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

We can indirectly estimate an opportunity to live up to age, which essentially exceeds a canonical centenary boundary. The regularities of statistics of mortality allow making it. The Gompertz law connects the force of mortality M(X) in some cohort with its current age X by means of formula M(X)=M*exp[aX]. Here the parameter ‘M’ is a characteristic force of mortality and the kinetic parameter ‘a’ characterize the rate of aging. Let us consider extreme age (Xe) as the age when M(X)=1 per year. That is to say that the life expectancy at this age must be approximately only one year.

Keywords: , , , ,

Plasticity of aging via external influences

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, V.N. Krutko

Several types of interventions provide evidence that aging can be successfully controlled. Now, when numerous life-extending mutations dispelled the long-term myth on immutability of species-specific life span it is a good time to rethink rational for anti-aging strategy. The evidence is currently accumulating that age-related changes in a cell are not the cause, but the consequence of organism’s senescence. The normal cells are not isolated in the body, and their functions are regulated by the factors originated outside these cells.

Keywords: , , , ,

Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy of Atherosclerotic Plaque with the Use of Silica-Gold Nanoparticles and Stem Cells versus Ferro-Magnetic Approach

Authors: A.N. Kharlamov, A.N. Perrish, S.A. Matveev, J.L. Gabinsky

Background. Some modern angioplasty techniques generally just manipulate the form of the plaque and have some clinical and technical restrictions, relatively high complication rate and restenosis risk. Methods. A total of 101 Yucatan miniature swines were assigned to the three groups (34 pigs into 60/15-70/40 nm silica-gold nanoparticles (NPs) nanogroup, 34 swines – into ferro-magnetic group with 100 nm iron-bearing NPs with delivery in hand of magnetic fields, and 33 - in sirolimus stenting control).

Keywords: nanoparticles, mesenchymal stem cells, plasmonics, atherosclerosis, IVUS

Legal problems of registering substances and therapies to cure aging

Authors: Khaltourina D.
A number of compounds are known to have some anti-aging effects, reducing the rate of aging or extending the lifespan in animals and probably in humans. At the same time, these drugs are not widely marketed to the general public as cures against aging, which probably causes unnecessary losses of healthy life years for many people. 
 
Keywords: legislation , advocacy

What is the age of the age-related mutations in mitochondrial DNA?

Authors: K. Khrapko
Audio: (Audio) (Slides)

The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging postulates that mutations in mitochondrial DNA accumulate with age and cause various intracellular adverse effects that ultimately contribute to some age-related degenerative changes. It is usually assumed that the mutations in question are actually generated at old age. Analysis of mutational spectra (i.e. frequency distributions of mutations by kind), however, suggests that at least in some cases mutations that are observed at old age may have been originally generated early in the development.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, aging, mutation, clonal expansion ,

Regression Analysis of Walking Parameters for the Age Predictive Equation

Authors: K. Kikkawa, H. Okada, T. Mori

When we estimate somebody's chronological age, we use their facial features, or the way they move as the basis of the estimate. In this sense, we are solving the inverse problem adopting the statistical thinking of regression analysis with the kinematic variables as the explanatory or independent variables, and age as the dependent variable.

Keywords: kinematic and kinetic parameters, walking data base, Japanese, regression analysis,

Gender differences of longitudinal changes of physical fitness in Japanese: a ten-year study

Authors: K. Kikkawa

Objective: In this study, the term senility will be used to describe a condition where the degree of deterioration or ageing is greater than that seen in by a normal ageing curve. The ratio of biological age to chronological age could be used as the bio-marker of ageing. In order to establish an excellent age-predictive equation, selection of the independent variables reflecting the ageing process is the most important issue.

Keywords: Japanese, gender difference, nonparametric statistics, longitudinal data,

Age-associated changes in walking parameters of Japanese adult women

Authors: Kikkawa K, Okada H, Oishi R.

Earlier, we proposed an age-predictive equation, based on several walking parameters screening in male subjects 50-80 years of age. However, with this equation, the predicted age is deviated from the actual age that was statistically justified in a wider range. With this in mind, the current study was undertaken to clarify the parameter of age-associated changes in walking movements and the occurrence age.

Keywords: ANCOVA, walking, kinematics, kinetics, Japanese

Statistical Issues of Regression Analysis on Development of an Age-predictive Equation

Authors: K. Kikkawa

INTRODUCTION: The ratio of biological age to chronological age could be used as the bio-marker of aging. In this study, several statistical information criteria in regression analysis were argued to establish the predictive equation of age from the measurements of simple fitness tests and other statistical issues.

Keywords: Regression Analysis, Prediction of Age, Fitness Test, Japanese ,

Effect of Physical Activity Levels on Bone Strength

Authors: K. Kikkawa

INTRODUCTION: Optimal treatment and prevention of osteoporosis require modification of risk factors, particularly adequate physical activity in addition to attention to diet. A number of physical educational opinions are available to health care providers. This study examines whether regular exercise has the potential of positively affecting the aging process in Japanese adults with regard to bone strength.

Keywords: ANCOVA, Japanese, Exercise, Ultra-sound method ,

Iron Accumulation During Cellular Senescence

Authors: D.W. Killilea, S.L. Wong, H.S. Cahaya, H. Atamna, B.N. Ames

Iron accumulates as a function of age in many tissues and is associated with age-related pathologies. Although the molecular basis of this change is not known, it may be due to a loss of iron homeostasis at the cellular level. Therefore, changes in iron content in primary (IMR90) and SV-40-transformed (SV-IMR90) human fibroblast cells were studied in culture as a model of cellular senescence. Total iron content increased exponentially in IMR90s during cellular senescence, whereas iron content in SV-IMR90s remained unchanged under identical conditions.

Keywords: senescence, iron, oxidative stress , ,

Osteoblastic Phenotype Expression of MC3T3-E1 Seeded on Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolacton) Scaffolds Incorporating Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane(POSS).

Authors: K.-O. Kim, B.-S. Kim, I.-S. Kim

Inorganic-organic hybrid scaffold composites are being developed with the aim of increasing the mechanical scaffold stability and improving their tissue interactions in cell culture.we have prepared the electrospun PCL fibrous webs incorporating amphiphilic PEG-POSS telechelic were prepared via electrospinning.

Keywords: hybrid scaffold, polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), MC3T3-E1 cell, PCL wettability, nanofiber

The Future of SENSFAI

Authors: D.K. Kimbel
Video: (Video)

The SENS Foundation Academic Initiative (SENSFAI) has recently entered a period of transition. Since its establishment three years ago (at the time as the Methuselah Foundation Undergraduate Research Initiative, or MFURI), the Academic Initiative has provided students interested in doing SENS research with guidance, mentoring, and funding. However, the Initiative’s activities have diminished over the last year. SENSFAI is now under new leadership, and its purpose and structure are being rethought.

Keywords: Academic Initiative, Outreach, SENSFAI, Students,

Genetic correction of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies

Authors: M.P. King
Audio: (Audio)

Increasing numbers of patients are being identified as suffering from mitochondrial diseases. Such diseases display great diversity in clinical symptoms and morphological and biochemical characteristics. Although mtDNA mutations have been identified in many patients, there are presently no effective treatments. A number of human diseases result from mutations in mtDNA-encoded proteins, a group of proteins that are hydrophobic and have multiple membrane-spanning regions.

Keywords: mtDNA, mitochondria, respiratory chain, mitochondrial disease ,

Aging, Adipose Tissue, and Cellular Senescence

Authors: J.L. Kirkland
Video: (Video)

Adipose tissue is at the nexus of processes involved in healthspan and metabolic dysfunction. Progression of age-related fat tissue dysfunction follows different trajectories across different fat depots, with fat becoming redistributed from subcutaneous to intra-peritoneal depots and ultimately ectopic sites, such as liver, muscle, and bone marrow. This is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, atherosclerosis, strokes, myocardial infarction, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction.

Keywords: fat tissue, cellular senescence, preadipocyte, ,

Intestinal stem cell ageing: role of mitochondrial mutation?

Authors: T.B.L. Kirkwood
Audio: (Audio)

We have shown that important functional changes occur with ageing in the stem cells of murine intestinal epithelium, resulting in increased susceptibility to damage-induced apoptosis, impaired regenerative capacity, and altered DNA damage responses. More recently, in studies of human colonic epithelium we have described a surprisingly high burden of mtDNA mutation that increases strongly with age and appears to originate within the stem cells.

Keywords: Ageing, Stem Cells, Intestinal Epithelium, Mitochondrial Mutation ,

Zebrafish as a novel vertebrate model of functional aging and gradual senescence

Authors: S. Kishi, J. Uchiyama

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed as a powerful model for genetic studies in developmental biology, which give insights into several human diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because aging processes affect these and many other human disorders, it is important to compare zebrafish and mammalian senescence. However, the aging process of zebrafish remains largely unexplored, and little is known about functional aging and senescence in zebrafish.

Keywords: Zebrafish, aging, senescence, stress, telomerase

Designing Enzymes Ab Initio - Kemp-Eliminases, Cysteine-Esterases, and Diels-Alderases

Authors: G. Kiss, K.N. Houk

Nature's proficient catalysts are responsible for a great variety of difficult chemical transformations that occur under mild conditions with remarkable efficiency and unmatched specificity. The design of novel enzymes has the potential of making these features accessible to synthetic organic catalysis, which constitutes a considerable practical value to biotechnology, pharmaceutical synthesis, and industrial processes.

Keywords: design, therapeutic enzymes, QM, MD,

Interventions in aging and age-associated pathologies by means of nutritional approaches

Authors: K. Kitani, T. Yokozawa, T. Osawa
Audio: (Audio)

The "Free Radical Theory of Aging" (FRTA) initially proposed by Harman [1]) half a century ago has been increasingly supported in recent years. However, while there have been a number of studies demonstrating a significant effect of antioxidant treatment in preventing experimentally induced pathologies that are believed to be at least partially caused by oxygen induced tissue damage, so-called antioxidant strategies have not been shown convincingly to be effective in increasing life spans of animals [2]).

Keywords: mice, life span, tetrahydrocurcumin, green tea polyphenol, antioxidants

Crack avoidance during cryopreservation attempts

Authors: K. Kletetschka, G. Kletetschka

This investigation tests whether fracture formation in cryo-preserved ice containing bodies could be affected by alternating magnetic field. The experiment was done on ion containing water inside a plastic container. Magnetism was used to stabilize/balance the pressure exerted during the freezing process. First we tested whether steady application of strong magnetic field has any positive effect on fracture formation, namely, whether a continuous magnetic field exposure can induce any specific fracture pattern.

Keywords: cryopreservation, magnetism, eddy currents, fractures, alternating magnetic field

Preliminary Use of the Insect parts for the Delivery of the Carbon Nanotubes into the Mammalian Structures

Authors: Gunther Kletetschka, Vojtech Zila, Sandrita Huerfano

The capsid of non-enveloped mouse polyomavirus (PyV) has 45 nm in diameter. Its outer shell is composed of 72 pentamers of the major structural protein VP1, arranged in icosahedral lattice. VP1 is able to spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) either during its expression in insect or yeast cells, or in vitro, from purified VP1 pentamers. Through the interactions of VP1 with sialysed ganglioside receptor, VLPs enter a variety of cell types including human cells, with the efficiency comparable with that of the native virions.

Keywords: Capsid, polyomavirus, carbon nanotubes, imunotherapy,

For a tree time can be slowed down: Analysis of proliferation capacity of tree cells

Authors: B. E. Flanary, G. Kletetschka

Time can (apparently) be slowed down for Pinus longaeva, a pine living on West coast of United States. Trees are found to be more than 3,000 years old and several are over 4,000 years old. The cells of these trees, as well as trees with normal life span, were extracted for telomere and/or telomerase activity.

Keywords: Longevity, Telomerase, Telomere, Trees, Pinus Longaeva

Efficiency of cellular division when creating small pockets of electric current along the walls of cells

Authors: Kletetschka G, Zila V, Klimova L.

There is likely a relation between the electromagnetic field and cancer growth. Magnetic field of 50 Hz and 100 microtesla enhanced the tumor development and growth in the breast cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats (Thun-Battersby et al., Cancer Res., 59: 3627-3633, 1999). It has been hypothesized that the increased breast cancer in industrial societies is related to greater exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF).

Keywords: murine embryonic stem cells, murine 3T6 fibroblasts cells, Escherichia coli, EMF, magnetic field

On the pro-inflammatory phenotype of senescent cells: the p53-mediated ICAM-1 expression

Authors: D. Kletsas, H. Pratsinis, G. Mariatos, V.G. Gorgoulis

Senescent cells are characterized by an pro-inflammatory phenotype, possibly leading to detrimental effects on tissue homeostasis. Microarray analysis has shown that one of the genes found to be over-expressed in cellular senescence is ICAM-1 (Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1) a crucial receptor in the cell-to-cell interaction, a process central to the reaction to all forms of injury. Its expression is up-regulated in response to a variety of inflammatory mediators, mostly via the NF-kB signalling pathway.

Keywords: Senescence, inflammation, p53, ICAM-1 ,

Directing the Repair of Damaged DNA and Genetic Mutations in vivo

Authors: E.B. Kmiec
Audio: (Audio)

DNA mutations either inherited or acquired during the lifecycle of the cell can affect multiple metabolic pathways. DNA damaging agents accelerate the rate of mutation and in some cases are responsible for the development of serious disease states. While a number of potential therapies are being developed to treat such disorders, the more direct approach is one in which the mutated base is corrected at its chromosomal location. Reversing such mutations would have a serious impact on the disease and likely lead to a permanent correction of some inherited diseases.

Keywords: gene repair, oligonucleotides , , ,

Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with a Yang-Invigorating Chinese Herbal Formula Increases Lifespan and Mitigates Age-Associated Declines in Mitochondrial Antioxidant Status and Functional Ability of Various Tissues in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice

Authors: K.M. Ko, P.Y. Chiu, H.Y. Leung, A. H.L. Siu, N. Chen, M.K.T. Poon

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that long-term treatment with Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating herbal formula used for the promotion of overall wellness in Chinese medicine, can enhance both mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability, and protects against oxidant injury of various rat tissues. To investigate whether VI-28 could affect survival of aging animals, male and female C57BL/6J mice were given a VI-28 supplemented diet (0.05 and 0.5%, w/w) starting at 36 weeks of age, until death.

Keywords: Longevity, Mitochondrial decay, Antioxidants, Chinese herbs,

What can we learn about immortality from embryonic stem cells?

Authors: M.S.H. Ko

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture defy cellular senescence and undergo more than 250 doublings without undergoing crisis or transformation. They tend to maintain a normal karyotype and high genome integrity. Mouse ES cells are thus often considered “immortal” cells. We have recently found that Zscan4, which was originally identified for its 2-cell embryo-specific expression, plays a critical role in the maintenance of genome stability and telomerase-independent telomere elongation. The implication of this finding to stem cell biology and aging research will be discussed.

Keywords: ES cells, Zscan4, telomere, immortality, genome stability

Longevity, ionizing radiation, and hormesis: the reliability-theory point of view

Authors: V.K. Koltover

Despite the phenotypic variety, aging of all organisms is governed by the universal quantitative laws. First, each species is characterized by the species-specific maximal life-span potential. Second, the growth of mortality rate with age obeys to the statistics of extremes (usually, the Gompertz law of mortality, h(t) = ho exp(γt), where ho и γ are the time-independent parameters), that has been confirmed for people and for other species of mammals, flies, mollusks, etc.

Keywords: aging, longevity, reliabitiy, free radicals, hormesis

Integrated system of aging biomarkers

Authors: E. Savitskaya, M. Batin, M. Konovalenko, A. Moskalev
Video: (Video)

Traditionally evaluation of age-related changes is performed by physiological, functional and psychological tests, by visual examination and some biochemical analyses. There is a big gap between the molecular data of aging and their implementation in practice mainly because aging data is scarce and it gets lost in the stream of bio-medical knowledge. As we know only a few databases exist that concern the molecular aspects of aging and none of them describes age-related changes and phenotype context like cell type or tissues.

Keywords: Biomarkers of aging, Bioinformatics, Systems Biology

Apolipoprotein E genotype and the age at menopause

Authors: J. Koochmeshgi, S.M. Hosseini-Mazinani, S.M. Seifati, N. Hosein-Pur-Nobari, L. Teimoori-Toolabi

Apolipoprotein E plays an important role in lipid transport and metabolism. E2/E3/E4 polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been implicated in a number of age-associated diseases and conditions- e.g.: Alzheimers, coronary heart disease, and osteoporotic fractures- with APOE 4 allele being associated with these conditions. In an interesting parallel, the age at menopause in women shows a connection with the same age-associated diseases and conditions, an early age at menopause being a risk factor.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein E, Menopause, Life History , ,

An appetite for death

Authors: J. Koochmeshgi

Sustained restriction of food intake can extend life in a diverse array of organisms. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in species of rotifers, nematodes, arthropods, and studied in detail in rodents. Here, we propose a hypothesis as a framework for interpreting this phenomenon. Our hypothesis connects food intake, reproduction, health, and longevity. We draw attention to a feature of dietary restriction- a concomitant decline in reproductive capacity. This has been shown in several species.

Keywords: Dietary Restriction, Aging, , ,

Reproductive switch and aging- the case of leptin change in dietary restriction

Authors: J. Koochmeshgi

Dietary restriction experiments provide a model for exploring the phenomenon of aging. Plasma levels of several biomolecules are known to change as a result of dietary restriction and these biomolecules have been considered for their possible role in aging. We have proposed a hypothesis for interpreting extension of life by dietary restriction. It posits that normal food intake is geared toward optimizing the internal milieu for reproduction, even though some components of this milieu may be detrimental to health in the long term.

Keywords: Leptin, Dietary Restriction, , ,

Reimagine Aging

Authors: Kope M.

We face a global crisis in the rising cost of healthcare for an aging population. Worldwide we spend trillions of dollars annually on healthcare for seniors. Yet heart disease, long the greatest of the UK and US health problems, has recently become the world’s biggest killer as well. There’s an immense amount of research being poured into the development of treatments for age-related disease, gerontological research organizations are increasingly focusing on translational results, and the word ‘healthspan’ is now in common use.

Keywords: aging, healthcare, healthspan, gerontology, policy

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