Abstract Archive

This searchable list includes the abstracts of all presentations given at a conference organised as part of the SENS series. We regret that the videos recorded at SENS3 and SENS4 are currently unavailable.

Plasticity of aging via external influences

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin, V.N. Krutko

Several types of interventions provide evidence that aging can be successfully controlled. Now, when numerous life-extending mutations dispelled the long-term myth on immutability of species-specific life span it is a good time to rethink rational for anti-aging strategy. The evidence is currently accumulating that age-related changes in a cell are not the cause, but the consequence of organism’s senescence. The normal cells are not isolated in the body, and their functions are regulated by the factors originated outside these cells.

Keywords: , , , ,

Intra-chromosomal DNA sequences and problem of aging

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

A popular theory of aging associates it with the age-related changes of cells due to the shortening of chromosomes because of under-replication DNA in telomeric regions of linear chromosomes. However, linearity of chromosomes not necessarily means the linear organization of their DNA. Moreover, there is reason to believe that the DNA strands with free ends the double helix is an artifact of the methods of its isolation and the norm is always a ring.

Keywords: , , , ,

Super-Longevity: Reality or Myth?

Authors: A.V. Khalyavkin

We can indirectly estimate an opportunity to live up to age, which essentially exceeds a canonical centenary boundary. The regularities of statistics of mortality allow making it. The Gompertz law connects the force of mortality M(X) in some cohort with its current age X by means of formula M(X)=M*exp[aX]. Here the parameter ‘M’ is a characteristic force of mortality and the kinetic parameter ‘a’ characterize the rate of aging. Let us consider extreme age (Xe) as the age when M(X)=1 per year. That is to say that the life expectancy at this age must be approximately only one year.

Keywords: , , , ,

Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy of Atherosclerotic Plaque with the Use of Silica-Gold Nanoparticles and Stem Cells versus Ferro-Magnetic Approach

Authors: A.N. Kharlamov, A.N. Perrish, S.A. Matveev, J.L. Gabinsky

Background. Some modern angioplasty techniques generally just manipulate the form of the plaque and have some clinical and technical restrictions, relatively high complication rate and restenosis risk. Methods. A total of 101 Yucatan miniature swines were assigned to the three groups (34 pigs into 60/15-70/40 nm silica-gold nanoparticles (NPs) nanogroup, 34 swines – into ferro-magnetic group with 100 nm iron-bearing NPs with delivery in hand of magnetic fields, and 33 - in sirolimus stenting control).

Keywords: nanoparticles, mesenchymal stem cells, plasmonics, atherosclerosis, IVUS

Osteoblastic Phenotype Expression of MC3T3-E1 Seeded on Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolacton) Scaffolds Incorporating Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane(POSS).

Authors: K.-O. Kim, B.-S. Kim, I.-S. Kim

Inorganic-organic hybrid scaffold composites are being developed with the aim of increasing the mechanical scaffold stability and improving their tissue interactions in cell culture.we have prepared the electrospun PCL fibrous webs incorporating amphiphilic PEG-POSS telechelic were prepared via electrospinning.

Keywords: hybrid scaffold, polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), MC3T3-E1 cell, PCL wettability, nanofiber

The Future of SENSFAI

Authors: D.K. Kimbel
Video: (Video)

The SENS Foundation Academic Initiative (SENSFAI) has recently entered a period of transition. Since its establishment three years ago (at the time as the Methuselah Foundation Undergraduate Research Initiative, or MFURI), the Academic Initiative has provided students interested in doing SENS research with guidance, mentoring, and funding. However, the Initiative’s activities have diminished over the last year. SENSFAI is now under new leadership, and its purpose and structure are being rethought.

Keywords: Academic Initiative, Outreach, SENSFAI, Students,

Aging, Adipose Tissue, and Cellular Senescence

Authors: J.L. Kirkland
Video: (Video)

Adipose tissue is at the nexus of processes involved in healthspan and metabolic dysfunction. Progression of age-related fat tissue dysfunction follows different trajectories across different fat depots, with fat becoming redistributed from subcutaneous to intra-peritoneal depots and ultimately ectopic sites, such as liver, muscle, and bone marrow. This is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, atherosclerosis, strokes, myocardial infarction, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction.

Keywords: fat tissue, cellular senescence, preadipocyte, ,

Preliminary Use of the Insect parts for the Delivery of the Carbon Nanotubes into the Mammalian Structures

Authors: Gunther Kletetschka, Vojtech Zila, Sandrita Huerfano

The capsid of non-enveloped mouse polyomavirus (PyV) has 45 nm in diameter. Its outer shell is composed of 72 pentamers of the major structural protein VP1, arranged in icosahedral lattice. VP1 is able to spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) either during its expression in insect or yeast cells, or in vitro, from purified VP1 pentamers. Through the interactions of VP1 with sialysed ganglioside receptor, VLPs enter a variety of cell types including human cells, with the efficiency comparable with that of the native virions.

Keywords: Capsid, polyomavirus, carbon nanotubes, imunotherapy,

What can we learn about immortality from embryonic stem cells?

Authors: M.S.H. Ko

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture defy cellular senescence and undergo more than 250 doublings without undergoing crisis or transformation. They tend to maintain a normal karyotype and high genome integrity. Mouse ES cells are thus often considered “immortal” cells. We have recently found that Zscan4, which was originally identified for its 2-cell embryo-specific expression, plays a critical role in the maintenance of genome stability and telomerase-independent telomere elongation. The implication of this finding to stem cell biology and aging research will be discussed.

Keywords: ES cells, Zscan4, telomere, immortality, genome stability

Integrated system of aging biomarkers

Authors: E. Savitskaya, M. Batin, M. Konovalenko, A. Moskalev
Video: (Video)

Traditionally evaluation of age-related changes is performed by physiological, functional and psychological tests, by visual examination and some biochemical analyses. There is a big gap between the molecular data of aging and their implementation in practice mainly because aging data is scarce and it gets lost in the stream of bio-medical knowledge. As we know only a few databases exist that concern the molecular aspects of aging and none of them describes age-related changes and phenotype context like cell type or tissues.

Keywords: Biomarkers of aging, Bioinformatics, Systems Biology

SENS Foundation and the Rise of Rejuvenation Biotechnology

Authors: M.K. Kope
Video: (Video)

Mike, Aubrey needs an abstract for your SENS5 talk. Is this all right? Too much? Sarah

Postponing Aging and Prolonging Life Expectancy with Knowledge-based Economy

Authors: Ü. Kristjuhan

Articles on human aging studies and their positive results increase the interest of the population in aging research as people see what is in store for them. Let us understand human aging as the accumulation of damage in the body that increases the probability of death. In developed countries the average life expectancy is increasing by one to three months every year. At present the average life expectancy exceeds 82 years in many developed countries: Japan, San Marino, Andorra, etc.

Keywords: postponing aging, prolonging life expectancy, knowledge-based economy, ,

Does inhibition of lipofuscin accumulation delay aging?

Authors: T. Kurz

An inverse correlation between lifespan and lipofuscin (LF) accumulation within postmitotic cells such as neurons and myocardial cells has been clearly shown. LF accumulation inside lysosomes affects the renewal of the cell components by autophagy. Therefore, it can be assumed that diminished LF accumulation would delay aging. LF forms intralysosomally secondary to iron-catalyzed peroxidation. Reduction of intralysosomal redox-active iron levels should therefore reduce LF formation.

Keywords: Lipofuscin, Iron, Oxidative stress, Lysosomes,

Computational Support for Systems Biology of Aging

Authors: P. Langley

Senescence arises from complex interactions among diverse sets of biological processes. In this talk I describe our efforts to encode knowledge about aging in formal computer-based models that let one visualize causal influences, revise and expand on these hypothesizes, generate explanations of phenomena, and compare predictions to observations. Users can access, examine, and utilize this content over the World Wide Web, letting it serve as a repository for the community's expanding knowledge about aging.

Keywords: systems biology, formal models

Trophokines: Novel therapies for Senescence

Authors: J.W. Larrick, A. Mendelsohn, V. Sharma, J. Wang, J. Fang, M. Huang, S.C. Wright

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes cell proliferation, motility, survival, and morphogenesis. HGF binds to its receptor c-Met tyrosine kinase and triggers signal transduction that protects cells against apoptosis and enhances cell growth for tissue regeneration. The profound effects of HGF to prevent cell death and to promote tissue regeneration make HGF an interesting drug candidate for therapeutic use. However, the activation of c-Met by HGF also leads to enhanced tumor metastasis and invasion.

Keywords: HGF, Trophokine, c-met, MSP, cytokine

Myostatin: Modulator of Muscle Mass, Mobility and Metabolism

Authors: N.K. LeBrasseur
Video: (Video)

The loss of skeletal muscle is one of the most dramatic changes in the human body consequent to advancing age and is referred to as sarcopenia. It is a primary cause of age-related changes in muscle performance, functional status and metabolic homeostasis. In an effort to counter sarcopenia and its consequences, we have studied strategies to inhibit the muscle-enriched TGF-β superfamily member, myostatin.

Keywords: Sarcopenia, Functional Decline, Healthspan , Frailty,

Back to the Temperature

Authors: G. Lehmann, D. Taranukha, K.K. Muradian, V.E. Fraifeld

Lowering body temperature (Tb) still remains the most efficient and reliable way for life span extension in exotherms. Several lines of evidence suggest that a moderate decrease in Tb could have a profound longevity-promoting effect in endotherms as well. This effect is a typical example of systemic interventions, with self-rearrangement at all levels of biological organization of an organism.

Keywords: body temperature, life span extension, mtDNA, metabolic rate, endotherms

Parasitic metabolic coupling in cancer: Understanding oxidative stress and autophagy in the tumor microenvironment

Authors: M.P. Lisanti
Video: (Video)

Cancer cells do not exist as pure homogeneous populations in vivo. Instead they are embedded in "cancer cell nests" that are surrounded by stromal cells, especially cancer associated fibroblasts. Thus, it is not unreasonable to suspect that stromal fibroblasts could influence the metabolism of adjacent cancer cells, and visa versa. In accordance with this idea, we have recently proposed that the Warburg effect in cancer cells may be due to culturing cancer cells by themselves, out of their normal stromal context or tumor microenvironment.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, oxidative stress, aging, inflammation, cancer metabolism

Intervall-Hypoxia-Hyperoxia-Therapy as a non-invasive tool to treat chronic diseases based on mitochondrial dysfunction

Authors: B.-M. Loeffler, E. Egorov

Intervall-hypoxia-therapy (IHT) is an in western medicine so far mostly unknown non-invasive therapeutic opportunity, even so that the physiological principles are at present already quit well understood down to the molecular level. With respective devices the concentration of oxygen in the breathable air is modulated between 21% (sea level) and 9% (+6500 m altitude) for defined periods. A novel element in this concept is the use of hyperoxia.

Keywords: intervall hypoxia hyperoxia therapy, mitochondrial dysfunction, Coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, anti aging

Poli-mix functional food enhances steady-state bioenergetic status independently of age: an experimental study

Authors: R. Rastmanesh, F. Marotta, M.K. Kantah, R. Nagpal, A. Lorenzetti, H. Takadanohara, H. Hashizume, C. Tomella, R. Kobayashi, D.H. Chui

The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether a poli-mix functional food VCC1-99 (a mixture of 42 extracts of non-GMO fruits and vegetables, one ml containing 400mg carbohydrates, 0.04mg protein, 0.04mg fat, 8mg vitamin C, 1.2mg vitamin E, 0.5mg coenzyme Q10, 6mg royal jelly, 5mg L-carnitine, Vibracell, Named srl, Lesmo, Italy) could affect hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level in mice aging from 1 to 24 months.

Keywords: functional food, liver steady state energetic status, NMR, antioxidant, elderly

Association of renal damage and oxidative stress in an experimental fructose-induced metabolic syndrome model

Authors: F. Marotta, A. Kumari, R. Catanzaro, C. Tomella, U. Solimene, A. Lorenzetti, S. Jain, E. Minelli

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide in both developing and developed countries. Metabolic syndrome (MS) encompasses a clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and have causative roles in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). On its turn, CKD leads to end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and death. The relationship between CKD and metabolic syndrome may provide clues to better understand the role of lifestyle-related factors and the age-related decline in GFR.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, renal disease, DTS, ,

Trachea and oesophagus tissue engineering

Authors: P. Macchiarini
Video: (Video)

The ramifications of stem cell research and therapy are enormous. We provided evidence that stem cells can be successfully applied to laryngo-tracheal and windpipe transplants for adults and children but why not imagine to use stem cell therapy in patients with otherwise untreatable end-stage diseases of the respiratory system? The debate still ranges on about the use of embryonic or adult stem cells.

Keywords: tissue engineering, trachea, larynx, ,

Leucocyte transfusions as a novel immunotherapy for cancer patients

Authors: D. Maharaj
Video: (Video)

Spontaneous regression/complete resistant (SR/CR) mice are a line of cancer-resistant mice that are capable of resisting large doses of transplanted lethal cancer cells [1-3]. The basis for this powerful resistance to cancer cells is leukocytes that are capable of detecting, infiltrating, and killing cancer cells within a few hours of exposure [1]. The major component of this anti-cancer response resides in granulocyte, monocyte, and natural killer cell fractions that constitute innate cellular immunity [1,2].

Keywords: Leucocyte, Infusions, Cancer, Young healthy donors,

Modulation of metallothionein-1 isoform on mice survival

Authors: M. Malavolta, A. Basso, F. Piacenza, L. Costarelli, R. Giacconi, E. Mocchegiani

Modulation of metallothionein-1 isoform on mice survival Marco Malavolta, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Eugenio Mocchegiani Ctr. Nutrition and Ageing, POR-INRCA, Ancona, Italy The role of MTs in aging and longevity is not completely understood. Several studies have brought evidence that these proteins could represent a basic defense system against oxidative damage. Their positive role in longevity and health span has been recently shown in cardiac specific transgenic mice.

Keywords: Metallothioneins, Longevity, Zinc, ,

Cardio-protective effect of biofermented nutraceutical on endothelial function in healthy middle-aged subjects

Authors: F. Marotta, H. Yadav, Y. Naito, A. Kumari, C. Tomella, R. Catanzaro, S. Jain, A. Lorenzetti, V. Soresi

Endothelial dysfunction is independently related to future cardiovascular events and the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. Although the inner mechanisms remain uncertain, an imbalance between increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant mechanism, especially inactivation of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide anion and other reactive oxygen species, may contribute to the promotion of atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Thus the aim in this study was to test a biofermented nutraceutical (FPP) which has been previously shown to positively modulate NO.

Keywords: fermented papaya preparation, endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide, flow mediated dilation, pxidative stress

Lysosomal enhancement strategies for the treatment of oxysterol-induced cytotoxicity

Authors: J.M. Mathieu, P.J. Alvarez
Video: (Video)

7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is a cytotoxic oxysterol that plays a role in many age-related degenerative diseases. 7KC formation and accumulation occur in the lysosomes in a number of cell types, hindering enzymatic transformation, and increasing the chance for lysosomal membrane permeabilization. We assayed the potential to mitigate 7KC cytotoxicity and enhance cell viability by transiently transfecting human fibroblasts to overexpress several 7KC-active enzymes.

Keywords: oxysterol, lysosome, 7-ketocholesterol, atherosclerosis,

Rejuvenating the B-lymphocyte lineage in aging.

Authors: D. Melamed
Video: (Video)

Aging is associated with a decline in B-lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow and accumulation of long-lived B-cells in the periphery. These changes decrease the body’s ability to mount protective antibody responses. The mechanisms underlining these alterations are poorly understood. We found that the age-related alterations in the B-lineage reflect homeostatic pressures that are imposed by the accumulating long-lived B cells.

Keywords: B-lymphocytes, bone marrow, aging, homeostasis,

The Health, Mortality, and Economic Impacts of Decelerated Aging

Authors: D. Goldman, P.C. Michaud, S.J. Olshansky

Scientists are now pursuing the means to slow ageing in people, but there has been comparatively less effort in understanding the health and economic consequences of success. In this paper we will address the short-term (10 years) and long-term (50 years) effects of decelerated ageing on the health and mortality of future generations of older persons, as well as the economic impact on individuals and populations. We use a dynamic simulation approach based on modeling the progression over the life course of Future American based on the Future Elderly Model.

Keywords: deceleration aging, long-term forecasts, economic impacts, ,

A biomimetic model aimed at recovering learning in a brain damaged animal: Converging neuroscience with technology

Authors: M. Mintz

Life quality and life span are seriously compromised by numerous brain diseases. Currently, rehabilitation is based largely on behavioral manipulations directed at activation of brain 'self-repair' processes. Future advances are expected to include biological manipulations such as genetic manipulation and stem cell-based therapy that promote neuronal recovery. Another feasible strategy is replacement of defined neuronal microcircuits by synthetic analogs.

Keywords: brain, damage, hybrid, rehabilitation, rat

Cryonic Life Extension

Authors: M. More
Video: (Video)

Cryonics involves the cryopreservation of humans as soon as possible after legal and clinical “death”. Legal and clinical death differ importantly from biological death or true (irreversible) cessation of function. It is therefore a mistake to portray cryonics as an alternative to cremation or burial. It is true that cryopreserved people are not alive but neither are they dead. Cryonics should be seen as part of the field of life extension.

Keywords: cryonics, longevity escape velocity, cryopreservation, ,

The effects of DNA damage response and repair genes overexpression on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan

Authors: A. Moskalev, M. Shaposhnikov, E. Plyusnina, A. Danilov

DNA is a key molecular target for age-related deterioration.

Keywords: Drosophila, longevity, DNA repair, DNA damage response, genes overexpression

Lung Regeneration: Progress and Challenges

Authors: L. Niklason, T. Petersen, E. Calle
Video: (Video)

Because adult lung tissue has limited regenerative capacity, lung transplantation is the primary therapy for severely damaged lungs. To explore whether lung tissue can be regenerated in vitro, we treated lungs from adult rats using a procedure that removes cellular components but leaves behind a scaffold of extracellular matrix that retains the hierarchical branching structures of airways and vasculature. We then used a bioreactor to culture pulmonary epithelium and vascular endothelium on the acellular lung matrix.

Keywords: Lung, Tissue Engineering, Extracellular Matrix, ,

Rebalancing the aging T-cell pool to improve resistance to infection in the old age

Authors: J. Nikolich-Zugich
Video: (Video)

Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility of older individuals to new and emerging infections; poor responses to vaccination compound this vulnerability. These problems may be further exacerbated in individuals with lifelong persistent viral infections, and human studies have highlighted an association between the Herpesvirus infections (most notably the cytomegalovirus, CMV) and pronounced signs of immune aging.

Keywords: Immune aging, CMV, Immune rejuvenation, ,

The Role of Transglutaminase-2 in Vascular Stiffness

Authors: L. Santhanam, D.E. Berkowitz, E. Tuday, J. Steppan, D. Nyhan

Aging is associated with alterations in the properties of all elements of the vascular wall including endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and matrix. These changes result in increased vascular stiffness and isolated systolic hypertension. Both dynamic and structural changes (e.g., fracturing of elastin, increased collagen content, and accumulation of advanced glycation end products) have been described in aging. Vessel structure can additionally be regulated by alterations in matrix crosslinking.

Keywords: tissue transglutaminase, S-nitrosylation, S-nitrosation, aging, vascular stiffness

MitoSENS: Allotopic expression of mitochondrial genes using a co-translational import strategy

Authors: M.S. O'Connor, G. Swaminathan, S. Fazal, T. Jones, A.D.N.J. de Grey
Video: (Video)

The mitochondrion contains its own genome and encodes 13 proteins that are essential for the respiratory chain to function properly. Congenital mutations in many of the mitochondrial genes are the cause of serious disease phenotypes including diabetes, blindness, dementia, ataxia, epilepsy, and many other neurological disorders. Somatic mutations also accumulate in the mitochondria with normal aging. Allotopic expression of mitochondrial genes in the cell’s nucleus is one approach to rescuing mitochondrial mutations.

Keywords: Mitochondria, allotopic

Reclinomonas americana mtDNA as a source for allotopic expression of human mtDNA

Authors: A. Olgun, L. Özbek

Age dependent accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is generally accepted as one of the factors involved in the mechanisms of aging. Therefore, allotopic expression of mitochondrial genes (the transfer of mitochondrial genes to nucleus) is proposed to rescue the cells from the deleterious effects of mtDNA mutations. In this study we analysed the possibility of the usage of Reclinomonas americana (R. americana) mtDNA as an evolutionary protected template for allotopic expression of human mtDNA encoded OXPHOS subunits. MtDNA of R.

Keywords: Aging, Mitochondrial DNA , Reclinomonas americana, Allotopic expression,

Pulsed electromagnetic fields for cell injury and repair

Authors: W. Pawluk

At the cellular level aging is a process of declining capacity for repair of cell injury. With aging there is cumulative, unrepaired or poorly repaired cell injury. This is “death by a 1000 cuts.” Cell injury results when cells can no longer adapt to stress, have unrecoverable exposure to damaging agents or suffer from intrinsic abnormalities, whether genetic or nutrient-based. Cell injury can progress from milder reversible states through more severe irreversible conditions leading to tissue and or organ failure of varying degrees, and finally senescent death.

Keywords: Cell injury, Pulsed electromagnetic fields, Charge induction, Enhancing longevity, Cell recovery and repair

Decrease of PGC-1alpha/PGC-1beta dependent signaling cascade of mitochondrial biogenesis in old rat liver is prevented by chronic supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine

Authors: L. Nicassio, F. Fracasso, C. Musicco, P. Cantatore, M.N. Gadaleta, V. Pesce

Mitochondria are a major source and target of endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that are produced as normal by-products of the electron transport system. Decay of mitochondrial function is a major contributor to aging process. The age-related overproduction of ROS compared to the scavenging efficiency of the antioxidant cellular system leads to the onset of an oxidative stress condition.

Keywords: Aging liver, Acetyl-L-carnitine, Mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC-1alpha/PGC-1beta , Peroxiredoxin III

Cells and niches transplantation as approaches to the immune system rejuvenation

Authors: I. Pishel, D. Shytikov, T. Orlova, M. Shkumat, T. Dubiley, P. Klimenko, G. Butenko

The manifestation of age-related changes of the immune system is one of the key factors of the whole organism aging. In contrast to many other organs and systems, the immune system aging begins in an early age and has more pronounced changes. The immune function decrease is explained by many factors, including thymus dysfunction, decrease in the proportion and function of T cells, changes in hematopoietic stem cell pool, etc. To prevent these changes we used various model approaches.

Keywords: Immunity, aging, parabiosis, niche transplantation,

Immune system aging in young heterochronic partners and its impact on life expectancy.

Authors: D. Shytikov, T. Orlova, A. Peregudov, I. Artyuhov, M. Shkumat, I. Pishel, G. Butenko.

Age-related decrease of immune function is well documented. The emergence of immune disorders is explained by many factors, including thymus dysfunction, decrease in the proportion and function of naive T cells, etc. According to conventional opinion, there are several approaches to prevent these changes, such as thymus rejuvenation, stem cells recovery, modulation of hormone production and others.

Keywords: immune, aging, parabiosis, life expectancy,

Beneficial modulation from a high-purity caviar-derived homogenate on chronological skin aging

Authors: F. Marotta, A. Polimeni, U. Solimene, A. Lorenzetti, E. Minelli, S. Jain, R. Rastmanesh, S. Sedriep, V. Soresi.

Alterations in collagen have been shown to be a cause of the clinical skin changes taking place during natural aging and increased elevated MMP expression and a concomitant reduction in collagen synthesis are common mechanisms of natural skin aging. Very recently it has been found that a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in samples from aged donors, accompanied by a significant increase in ROS levels.

Keywords: caviar-derived homogenate, chronological skin aging, MMP-1, collagen synthesis, mitochondria activity

Biomarine extracts significantly protect from UVA-induced skin photo-aging: an ex-vivo study

Authors: F. Marotta, A. Kumari, H. Yadav, A. Polimeni, V. Soresi, A. Lorenzetti, Y. Naito, S. Jain

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the causative factors of DNA damage and inflammatory responses, and induces various skin lesions being a well-established epidemiological risk factor for photoageing and photocarcinogenesis. Moreover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) production and subsequent ECM alteration are observed in photo-aged skin. Thus, it has been ascertained that UV triggers a cascade of signaling mechanisms which then cause a decrease of collagen and an increase of MMP, inflammation, epidermal DNA damage and apoptosis.

Keywords: skin photoaging, marine extract, MMP-1, elastase activity inhibitor,

The pro-atherogenic phenotype in ageing – lipoprotein B100 and A1 leading the dance into decline of vascular health by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms.

Authors: N. Rabbani, P.J. Thornalley

Lipoproteins are essential vehicles for conveyance of lipids and cholesterol in human metabolism. Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is present in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). VLDL, IDL and chylomicrons deliver lipids to the peripheral cells and VLDL, IDL and LDL deliver cholesterol to the liver and peripheral tissue. Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA1) is the major lipoprotein of high density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL conveys cholesterol ester from peripheral sites to the liver and thereby has anti-atherogenic activity.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein, High density lipoprotein, Methylglyoxal

Very Small Embryonic Like Stem Cells (VSELs) – our key to longevity and passkey to cancer?

Authors: M.Z. Ratajczak, M. Kucia, D. Myung-Shin, M. Masternak, A. Bartke

Pluripotent very small embryonic/epiblast derived stem cells (VSELs) as we hypothesize are deposited at begin of gastrulation in developing tissues and play an important role as backup population of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for tissue committed stem cells (TCSCs).

Keywords: VSELs, pluripotent stem cells and aging, insulin/insulin growth factors, cancer stem cells, imprinted genes

Embryonic Stem Cell Strategies for the Realization of Rejuvenation Biotechnology

Authors: Justin Rebo, John Schloendorn

Replacement of lost and damaged cells remain critical to the repair of age related damage and associated pathology. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in an adult organism. It has been 30 years since the isolation and culture of mouse ESCs and 13 years since the similar isolation and culture of human ESCs. Despite these time-frames low-hanging fruit in the development of viable cell therapies based on ESCs remain abundant.

Keywords: embryonic stem cell, rejuvenation, , ,

Autophagy, a guardian against neurodegeneration

Authors: D.C. Rubinsztein
Video: (Video)

Intracellular protein misfolding/aggregation are features of many currently incurable late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and polyglutamine expansion diseases like Huntington’s disease (HD) and various spinocerebellar ataxias. The mutations causing many of these diseases confer novel toxic functions on the target proteins. We showed that the autophagy inducer, rapamycin, reduced the levels of mutant huntingtin and attenuated its toxicity in cells, and in Drosophila and mouse HD models.

Keywords: autophagy, aggregates, Huntington's disease, dementia, neurodegeneration

Technological Entanglement: Assessing Anti-Aging Strategies through Assisted Death Laws

Authors: M.J. Shariff

Humans are on the threshold of being able to significantly increase their life expectancy yet, in the majority of jurisdictions there is little or no consensus as to how we are permitted to die. Today life extension and anti-aging research is currently being undertaken around the world. However not all longevity technologies are equal. Indeed, such technologies present varying degrees of “entanglement” with the human body as one moves for example, through simple changes in diet through to gene therapies, regenerative medicine and nanotechnology.

Keywords: technological entanglement, assisted death, normative impact of technology, ,

Plastic Antibodies, Synthetic Receptors for Biological Macromolecules

Authors: K.J. Shea
Video: (Video)

General methods for the recognition of specific peptide sequences, proteins and related biological macromolecules remain a significant challenge. The talk will describe general protocols for creating synthetic polymer receptors for peptides and proteins with antibody-like affinity for biological macromolecules. These nanoparticles have been found to function in vivo and are now being evaluated for therapeutic applications, in bioprocessing and diagnostics.

Keywords: synthetic antibody, protein capture agent, , ,

Aspirin, the oldest new anti-aging drug

Authors: R.J. Shmookler Reis, S. Ayyadevara, C.P. Hu, M. Khaidakov, P. Bharill, J.L. Mehta

Although introduced over a century ago, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is still one of the most frequently utilized drugs worldwide, and is employed for a remarkable variety of beneficial effects. Even at low dose (81 mg or less per day), it provides protection against cardiovascular disease, stroke, and even against a number of cancers. Aspirin appears to delay cardiovascular aging through both organ-specific and global mechanisms.

Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular, senescence/aging, atherosclerosis, inflammation

Nanobodies against APP

Authors: M.R. Sierks, S. Boddapati, S. Kasturirangan

Deposition of misfolded amyloid beta (abeta) is one of the important neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Abeta is produced from the Amyloid Precursor Protein by the sequential activity of two enzymes, β–secretase and γ-secretase. A third protease, α-secretase, cleaves APP in the middle of the abeta sequence precluding formation of Abeta. The levels of abeta generated from APP can therefore be controlled by tailoring the activity of these proteases toward APP.

Keywords: beta-amyloid, amyloid precursor protein, BACE inhibitor, proteolytic antibody, aggregation